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Nasrullah Khan (b.1874-d.1920), sometimes spelt as Nasr Ullah Khan,[1] was shahzada (crown prince) of Afghanistan and second son of Emir Abdur Rahman Khan. He held the throne of Afghanistan as Emir for one week, from February 21 to February 28, 1919

Nasrullah was born at Samarkand in 1874,[2] the second of three sons of Abdur Rahman Khan. His brothers were Habibullah Khan and Mohammed Omar Khan.[3] Nasrullah's birth occurred during a period in which his father Abdur Rahman Khan was living in exile in Russian Turkestan.

On July 22, 1880, Nasrullah's father was recognised as Emir following the end of British occupation of Afghanistan, on the condition that he align Afghanistan's foreign policy with that of Britain. As a consequence of his father's ascension of the throne, Nasrullah (and his elder brother Habibullah) became Shahzada (crown princes) of Afghanistan.

Visit to England

Nasrullah meets Queen Victoria during his 1895 visit to England.

In 1895 the Emir Abdur Rahman Khan had intended to undertake a state visit to England to pay his respects to the ageing Queen Victoria I. However, his health prevented him from making the trip, and so he instead sent his son the Shahzada Nasrullah Khan.[4] Nasrullah departed Bombay on April 29, 1895, with an entourage of over 90 dignitaries, including "five or six" high-ranking Afghan nobles and a group of priests for the observance of religious functions.[1] On May 23 the Shahzada landed at Portsmouth in England.[4]

On 27 May 1895 the Shahzada was received by the Queen at Windsor.[4] During his trip he also visited the Liverpool Overhead Railway, and went to Ascot, Glasgow, and the Elswick Company Gun Range at Blitterlees Banks.[5] He made a gift of £2,500 to Abdullah Quilliam to support the work of the Liverpool Muslim Institute.

At the time of his visit, the Shahzada was 20 years of age. He reportedly did not speak English well, and did not make a good impression on the local press.[5] A reporter from the Cumberland Pacquet described him as "a stolid, impassive, and greatly bored youth".[5]

On September 3, 1895 he left England for Paris,[6] and from Paris went on to Rome and Naples, and arrived in Karachi on October 16, 1895. He returned to Kabul through Quetta, Chaman and Kandahar.[4]National Geographic Magazine believed this to be the longest journey ever undertaken by an Afghan.[7] The

In 1895, Nasrullah and his brother Habibullah received the Knight Grand Cross of St Michael and St George from Queen Victoria I in recognition of their services to the British Commonwealth.[4]

 During Habibullah's reign

On October 3, 1901 Nasrullah's father Abdur Rahman died, aged 57, and Nasrullah's brother Habibullah peacefully ascended the throne of Afghanistan by right of primogeniture.[4]

Prior to his death, Abdur Rahman had sought to totally subdue any sources of opposition to his reign and the stability of Afghanistan with strict laws and restrictions. Among those affected by Abdur Rahman's restrictions was the religious establishment. Upon Abdur Rahman's death, the religious establishment sought to regain its power, and saw in Nasrullah a potential ally. Nasrullah was by this stage deeply religious and had qualified as a Hafiz, or "Repeater of the Qur'an", one who has memorised a substantial portion of the Islamic regligious texts.[8] Throughout his adult life he advocated an Afghan policy strongly aligned with Islamic principles.[8]

Recognising his brother as a potential contender for the throne, Habibullah went to lengths to placate and gain the support of Nasrullah. Upon Habibullah's succession to the throne he named Nasrullah commander-in-chief of the Afghan army, and also gave him the title of President of the State Council.[8][8] By contrast, Nasrullah's younger brother Mohammed Omar Jar, and Mohammed's mother the Queen Dowager Bibi Hallima, both of whom were powerful political forces potentially of danger to Habibullah, were kept by Habibullah as "practically state prisoners" confined in private quarters under the guise of protection by a strong detachment of the Imperial Bodyguard (Mohammed Omar Jar having been stripped of his own personal bodyguard - and state positions - by Habibullah in 1904).[3] Later in his reign, Habibullah named Nasrullah his heir to the throne in preference to Habibullah's own sons.

The level of influence Nasrullah enjoyed led Angus Hamilton in his 1910 book Afghanistan to describe Habibullah as a "weak-willed" ruler, and the possibility of Nasrullah making an attempt on the throne caused Hamilton to describe him as a "stormy petrel in the Afghan sea of domestic politics".[3]

Anti-British policy

Despite his earlier trip to England, Nasrullah demonstrated little sympathy for British foreign policy towards Afghanistan.

When Abdul Rahman Khan took the throne of Afghanistan in 1880, he inherited the terms of the 1878 Treaty of Gandamak, which made Afghanistan a British protectorate. The treaty, amongst other provisions, surrendered control over Afghan foreign relations to the British and allowed for a British mission, with European members, to reside in Kabul. Abdul Rahman Khan was able to alter the terms of the treaty to provide that all members of the British mission be Indian Muslims but was otherwise stuck with the treaty in its entirety.[9]

The Treaty of Gandamak also required that Afghanistan sever its relationships with the independent tribes of the tribal regions of Afghanistan, those lying on the far side of the Durand Line. These tribes had previously been a substantial source of military power for the Afghanistan throne. When Habibullah became Emir he was pressured by the British government to ratify the Treaty of Gandamak and, although he did so by proclamation in 1905, he would not commit to withdraw Afghan influence from the British side of the Durand Line, or to sever Afghanistan's relationship with the tribes in that area.[9]

The significance of the tribal areas was that they formed a natural military barrier against the British, who periodically threatened to invade the region to counter Russian advances from the north. Nasrullah Khan actively agitated his brother Habibullah to make use of Afghanistan's influence with the tribes to strengthen Afghanistan's position against the British, and at Nasrullah's urging Hasbibullah continue to pay allowances to the Durand Line tribes despite the Treaty of Gandamak.[9]

At around the same time, during 1904-05, Sir Louis Dane (later governor of the Punjab region of India) attempted to establish a new British mission at Kabul in line with the terms of the Treaty. This was a plan which Nasrullah unsuccessfully opposed.[3]

When the First World War broke out in 1914, the Young Afghan political movement, headed by journalist Mahmud Tarzi and Habibullah's son Amanullah, advocated that Afghanistan enter the war on the German-Turkish side, in direct opposition to Britain. In this they had the support of Nasrullah and the religious factions he represented, who were sympathetic towards the Ottomans because of what they saw as unwarranted infidel aggression towards Islamic states. Despite this, the Emir Habibullah Khan judged Afghanistan too poor and weak to realistically take part in the war, and declared Afghanistan's neutrality, to the frustration of Nasrullah and the Young Afghans.

Nevertheless Nasrullah actively used his political power to assist the German-Turkish efforts. When the Turko-German Niedermayer-Hentig expedition was welcomed to Kabul in 1915 (despite promises to the Viceroy of India that the expedition would be arrested), Nasrullah provided a friendly ear to the mission after Habibullah reaffirmed Afghanistan's neutrality. Nasrullah was involved in introducing the expedition to journalist Mahmud Tarzi, whose papers began taking an increasingly anti-British stance. He also continued to entreat the mission to remain in Kabul despite Habibullah's unwillingness to offer them a solid alliance.[10] Finally in 1916 Nasrullah offered to remove Habibullah from power and take charge of the frontier tribes in a campaign against British India, but by then the mission realised such action would be fruitless and declined.[11]

The Turko-German embassy withdrew in 1916, but not before it had convinced Habibullah that Afghanistan was an independent nation which should not remain beholden to the British. Following the closure of the World War, Habibullah petitioned the British for favours resulting from Afghanistan's alleged assistance to the British during the war. These favours included the recognition of Afghanistan's independence and a seat at the Versailles Peace Conference. Britain refused both these requests. Habibullah sought to open further negotiations but before these could progress he was assassinated.

 Succession and death

In February 1919, Emir Habibullah Khan went on a hunting trip to Afghanistan's Laghman Province. Among those in his retinue were Nasrullah Khan, Habibullah's first son Inayatullah, and Habibullah's commander-in-chief Nadir Khan. On the evening of February 20, 1919, Habibullah was assassinated while in his tent by persons unknown, leaving Nasrullah the heir successor to the Afghan throne.[12]

The remainder of Habibullah's party journeyed south-east to Jalalabad, and on February 21, 1919 reached that city, whereupon Nasrullah immediately declared himself Emir, supported by Habibullah's first son Inayatullah.[13]

Upon receiving the news, Amanullah Khan, third son of Habibullah by Habibullah's first wife, immediately seized control of the treasury at Kabul and staged a coup.[14] He took control of Kabul and the central government and imprisoned Nasrullah's supporters. On February 28, 1919, Amanullah proclaimed himself Emir,[13] and on March 3, 1919 Nasrullah was arrested by Amanullah's forces.[10]

On April 13, 1919, Amanullah held a Durbar (a royal court) in Kabul which inquired into the death of Habibullah. It found a colonel in the Afghanistan military guilty of the crime, and had him executed. It also found Nasrullah complicit in the assassination.[13] Nasrullah was sentenced to life imprisonment,[15] and was assassinated approximately one year later while in the royal jail.[10]






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Habībullāh Kalakānī (c. 1890 – 17 October 1929), (حبیب‌الله کلکانی) also known as Habībullāh GhāzīBacha-ye Saqqā, was Emir of Afghanistan from January to October 1929 after deposing Amānullāh Khān with the help of various Ghilzai tribes who opposed modernization of Afghanistan.[1] After gaining power, he named himself Habībullāh Khādem-e Dīn-e Rasūlallāh ("The servant of the religion of the messenger of God"). He was himself overthrown and executed on 3 November 1929 by the army of Mohammed Nadir Khan with help of the Afghan tribes from around the country.[2] and

Habībullāh Kalakānī, an ethnic Tajik, was born in the village of Kalakān in 1890s, which is north of Kabul. His father was a water carrier, therefore he was called "Bache Saqqaw" (Son of a watercarrier) who sent him to a local madrasa to study the Qur'an.

During his adolescence, Habībullāh ventured out of his village and traveled to Kabul and later to JalalabadPeshawar, where he performed odd jobs to sustain himself. In the South, he ran into an old Sufi who told him that he would become Amir one day and then handed him an amulet to keep for good luck.[3] and

In 1919, he returned to Kabul and joined the Afghan National Army. Due to his lack of professional qualification Habībullāh became disillusioned by his income from the army, and compounded with his disobedience and unwillingness to follow orders, he decided to return back to his village in Kalakān an had soon become head of a bandit robber band.

Revolt

By 1928, Amanullah Khan had returned from Europe and brought with him vast social and cultural changes. This act, as well as pictures of Soraya Tarzi, the Queen of Afghanistan, in western attire upset the ultra-conservative Shinwari tribe and they called for the banishment of the King and the Queen from Afghanistan.

A revolt broke out in Laghman, as Habībullāh having been granted strong support used Tajik and Ghilzai gurrellas fighters. With a change of plans, he decided to resist the government officials in the north and, thus, a $10,000 bounty was placed on him.

With Amanullah's army engulfed in severe battle in Laghman and Jalalabad, Habībullāh began to attack Kabul from the north. The revolt caught steam and by then the country was in full civil war. Kabul was surrounded by the FATA tribes in the south and Habībullāh's militias to the north.

In the middle of the night, on 14 January 1929, Amanullah Khan handed over his Kingdom to his brother Amir Inayatullah Khan and escaped from Kabul towards Kandahar in the south.

On 16 January 1929, with the King gone, Habībullāh wrote a letter to Amir Inayatullah Khan to either surrender or prepare to fight. Inayatullah Khan's response was that he had never sought nor wished to be king and agreed to abdicate and proclaim Habībullāh as the Amir on 17 January.

Kingship and overthrow

Kalakani's first order was to change the western attire back to traditional clothing and to remove all the flowers from the presidential grounds and plant vegetables instead. He closed down women schools and all western education centres. Cruel and ruthless as he was[citation needed], his fighters were responsible for mass killings, robberies and sexual assaults.[citation needed]

By September 1929, Amanullah Khan had stopped in Kandahar to regroup his followers and recalled his top general, Nadir Khan, from Europe. General Nadir Khan's army breezed through the west and southern Afghanistan. They had weapons and the support of the people as many volunteers joined the army.

Furthermore, Nadir Khan furnished with troops consisting of thousands of young people from tribal Waziristan and southern parts of Afghanistan. The troops fast approached Kabul and slowly began defeating the forces loyal to Kalakani.

The only man whom Habībullāh feared was coming for him. By October 1929, Kabul was surrounded by Nadir Khan's forces. Kalakani escaped from Kabul towards his village as a fugitive fearing for his life.

Habībullāh again gathered his supporters. He displayed the Quran and Nadir Khan's letter to them and waited to hear their reply. Their answer was negative because they did not trust Nadir Khan, whom they considered to be a smart leader.

Execution

Kalakani was later taken to the execution ground and executed on 3 November 1929. While he prepared for the execution, he knelt down and prayed. Habībullāh looked up to the sky and said "Oh God, I have nothing to ask from you, you have given me everything that, I have wanted, you made me Amir..."[citation needed] He was then executed by hanging along with several of his supporters.






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Inayatullah Khan Seraj (October 20, 1888 – August 12, 1946) was the king of the Emirate of AfghanistanHabibullah Khan. Inayatullah's brief reign ended with his abdication. from 14 January 1929 to 17 January 1929. He was the son of former Afghan King,

In the middle of the night, on January 14, 1929, Amanullah Khan handed over his kingship to his brother Inayatullah Khan Seraj and tried to secretly escape Kabul towards Kandahar. However, Habibullāh KalakāniRolls Royce on horseback but Amanullah managed to escape. and his followers chased Amanullah's

With the King gone, Habibullah Kalakani wrote a letter to King Inayatullah to either surrender or prepare for war. Inayatullah's response was that he had never sought nor wished to be king and agreed to abdicate and proclaim Habibullah Kalakani as king on January 18, 1929.[2] Inayatullah was airlifted out of Kabul by the Royal Air Force [3] and spent the remainder of his life in exile





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(1913-1979) Noor Mohammad Taraki was born in Paghman district of Kabul in a Pashtun family On July 15th 1913

Nur Mohammad Taraki attended school in Bombay India and studied English while he was working as a clerk. He continued his education at Kabul University and got his bachelor degree then he joined Columbia University in New York and received his masters. Later he joined Harvard University and achieved his PhD in political economics. Taraki was an important figure of the Khalq faction of the People’s Democratic Party of Afghanistan (PDPA)party which was a communist party. In 1978 Taraki become the President of Afghanistan after killing Mohammad Daud Khan and his family

Taraki served as General Secretary of the PDPA party, prime minister and as the communist president of Afghanistan. While he the president, his government was divided between himself and Deputy Prime Minister Hafizullah Amin who both were in the Khalq faction running against the Parcham leaders such as Babrak Karmal and Dr. Najibullah. Eventually, on September 14, 1979, the shared deal between Taraki and Amin was ended and Taraki was killed by his deputy prime minister Hafizullah Amin.

When Taraki became the president, he totaly changed the Afghanistan flag to a solid red background. He embedded the symbol of the 'Khalq' faction in the middle of the two wheat branches and placed it on the top right side of the Afghanistan flag as an emblem




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The current Afghanistan flag is contained three solid colors such as black, red and green and each color represents a different page in the history of Afghanistan.

The black represents the 19th century era when Afghanistan was occupied and did not have independence. The red color means blood shed and fights for independence and the green means the independence achieved as well as hope and prosperity for the future. This three stripe flag was designed during King Amanullah Khan after he returned from a visit of Europe in 1928.

Afghanistan flag is made of equal three stripe colors with an emblem (mehrab) in the middle of the red stripe in white color. There are two wheat branches on each side of the (Mehrab) and on top of the wheat branches, there is the declaration of Shahdah ( Muslim’s faith declaration) which means There is no god but Allah and Mohammad is his prophet

The meaning of Afghanistan flag:

Black: Darkness of the past history of Afghanistan
Red: Blood shed and war in the history of Afghanistan
Green: Hope, Prosperity, and a Bright future

The two branches of wheat on Afghanistan flag emblem comes from the time of the legend. During the Aryan Empire, King Yamah and the founder of Afghanistan Ahmad Shah Durani was crowned with it for the first time as a symbol of bravery. Afghanistan flag has been changed several times during every single regime as well as the emblem of Afghan flag. To know more about Afghanistan flags and kingdoms, we start from the kingdom of Amir Habibullah Khan 1901 to the last or current flag of Aghanistan





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Hamid Karzai was born on December 24, 1957 in an ethnic Popalzai Pashtun tribe in the village of Karz,
near Kandahar province Afghanistan.
In December 2001 Bonn Conference Germany, Hamid Karzai was selected as the Chairman of the Transitional Administration of Afghanistan. In the 2002 Loya Jirga (Grand Council)Karzai was appointed as the Intrem-president of the Afghan Transitional Administration. Then in 2004 presidential election he won the second term presidency for five years which was ended in August 2009. Moreovere, he liked the presidencey and being the president of Afghanistan for seven years, so he attended again in august
2009 election and campaigned agaist his former foreign minister Dr Abdullah Abduallah. However, the ressault was annouced On October,20,2009 after weeks of investigation about the fraud during the election proccess and Hamed Karzai went to runn off against Abdullah Abduallah. In the second term election which was supposed to be held on November 7th 2009, His opponent Dr Abdullah didn't attend in the election and Karzai was announced as the president of Afghanistan.

Karzai was born in an educated family. His father, Abdul Ahad Karzai, was a Popalzai tribal elder and a significant political figure who served as Deputy Speaker of the Parliament during the kingdom of Mohammad Zahir Shah in 1960. Karzai started his school in Kandahar city and then he moved to Kabul to complete his education. From 1979 to 1983, he took a postgraduate course in political science at Himachal Pardesh University in India. After he returned home, he started to work as a fund-raiser for supporting anti-Soviet Mujahideen from the early Soviet invasion until the rest of the 1980s in Afghanistan. Karzai was also worked as a middle man between the U.S. Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) and the former Mujahideen.

Moreover, one of Karzai’s brothers had a close personal contact with former CIA Director William Casey and George H.W.Bush during the Soviet invasion. Karazai’s brothers immigrated to the United States; however, Hamed Karzai remained in Pakistan during the Soviet occupation. After the communist regime of Dr. Najibullah in 1992, Karzai worked as Deputy Foreign Minister in the government of Burhanudin Rabani. When the Taliban emerged in the 1990s, Karzai was at first one of their supporters but later he broke with them and refused to serve as their U.N ambassador. While Hamid Karzai was living in exile in Quetta Pakistan, his father Abdul Ahad Karzai was assassinated by the Taliban on July 1999. In the beginning of 2001 Hamid Karzai worked closely with the leader of Northern Alliance Ahmad Shah Masoud to help gather support for the anti-Taliban movement. When the 9/11 attack happened in New York and Washington, the US led NATO forces with Northern Alliance bombarded the Taliban shelters until their regime overthrew.

Afghanistan flag was adopted in 2002 by President Karzai in three vertical color stripes similar to Afghanistan flag during Zahir Khan's kingdom. However, Karzai added the deceleration of Shahadah above the two sides of wheat branches on top of the emblem. Afghanistan flag represents the long history of afghanistan





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(1996-2001) Taliban Regime appeared in 1996 and governed almost 97% of Afghanistan for five years.

It's believed that the Taliban was created, trained and supported in Pakistan by ISI Pakistani Intelligence
 service with the help of CIA. The leader of the Taliban was Mullah Mohammad Omer whio was from Kandahar Southern province of Afghanistan. The Taliban regime was called the Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan which only gained diplomatic recognition from three countries including Pakistan as the first, Saudi Arabia and United Arab Emirates. The Taliban was a group of extremists came mostly from Pakistan and highly supported militarily and economically. However, in the last few years of Taliban government, many other foreign militias have been seen which are still in the combat zone with the Taliban.
During the Taleban regime, All afghan news, media and entertainment was banned. Women were not allowed to go to school or work and they had to wear Burqa. They were also allowed to wear white shoes and western style clothing like jeans as well as, they had to have a male companion from their families when going out. Meanwhile, there were also restrictions on men such as: having beard, wearing turban and hat, not to wear jeans and western style clothing and much more. In general they have banned everything even television, photography, arts and museums etc. After 9/11 attack in 2001 the Taliban government has collapsed due to heavily bombardments of U.S B52 from the air and Northern Alliance and NATO forces from the ground forced the Afghani Taliban to escape. However, the Taliban rule has ended but they have managed to escape to the southern provinces where there is still war going on. The Taliban flag was a solid white color with the declaration of Shahdah in the center of the their flag




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(1947 – 1966) Dr. Mohammad Najibullah known as Dr Najibullah was born in August 1947 in a Pashtun family in Kabul, but his family was originally from Paktia province of Afghanistan

Dr. Najib was enrolled at Habibia high school in Kabul and then attended Kabul University where he achieved his degree as a medicine doctor in 1975. Najib Joined the PDPA and then he became secretary general of the PDPA after the resignation of Babrak Karmal. In 1986 Dr. Najibullah was elected as a president of Afghanistan and a new constitution was adopted and later the name of the country was reverted to the Republic of Afghanistan.

Dr. Najib stabilized his political position enough to begin matching Moscow’s moves toward withdrawal which in result the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan was ended on July 20, 1987 with the withdrawal of Soviet troops. After the withdrawal, the Soviet support reached in a value of $3 billion in 1990 and Kabul had achieved a stalemate which exposed the Mujahideen’s weakness in political and military wise, and Najibullah's government survived for another two years.

In March of 1990, Dr Najibullah’s government successfully stood against a Khalqi coup which it was headed by the Defense Minister ‘Shahnawaz Tanai’. When the coup failed Mr. Tanai fled to Pakistan. Afterward the government of Najibullah got weaker and then the regime collapsed, as Kabul was short in fuel and food. Shortly on March 18 of 1992, president Najibullah announced his willingness to resign in order to find ways for a neutral interim government

After his resignation, Mujahideen captured Kabul and he sought sanctuary in the UN compound in Kabul and Burhanudin Rabani refused to let him leave the country, however made no attempt to arrest him. In 1992 while he was not able to leave the country, a political asylum was granted to his family from India and his wife and three daughters lived in exile since then. After the Mujahideen’s government withdrawal in 1996, Masoud the defense minister, Rabani, and Dustom escaped to Panjshir and asked Dr. Najib to leave Kabul and go with them, but Dr Najibullah refused the proposal due to thinking that could be a trap for killing him.

In 1996 the capital Kabul was captured by Pakistani agents of Inter-Service of Intelligences ‘ISI’ and CIA known as Taliban. In the second day after the Taliban Rebels arrived, they took away Dr. Najibullah from UN compound tortured, castrated, then brutally murdered him along with his brother Ahmad Zia and hung their bodies in public traffic light for the public view.

The Afghanistan flag during Dr. Najib remained as the three horizontal stripe colors except the emblem was slightly changed






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(1909 – 1978) Mohammad Daoud Khan which was known as Sardar Daud Khan was born on July 18, 1909 i Kabul Afghanistan in a royal family.

Daoud Khan was a prince and politician of Afghanistan who overthrew the monarchy of his first cousin and brother-in-law Zahir Shah and became the first Afghanistan president from July 1973 until his assassination PDPA party in 1978. Before he become the president, Mohammad Daud Khan had served as a Prime Minister for ten years from 1953 until 1963. In 1973 Daoud Khan staged a bloodless coup and got the power from his cousin and (Brother-in-Law) Zahir Shah. Daoud Khan became the first president of Afghanistan and established a republican government for the first time and he never announced himself as a king (shah). Daud Khan was known for his progressive policies, especially in relation to the women rights.

On April 27, 1978, Daud Khan and most of his family were shot in the presidential palace and dumped in mass graves by the communist regime of Noor Mohammad Taraki, Hafizullah Amin and Babrak Karaml. However on June 2008, the body of the President Daud Khan and his family were found in two separate mass graves in the Pul-i-Charkhi district of Kabul

The flag during Daud Khan's presidency was changed from vertical to horizontal style and embedded an eagle with two wheat branches as an emblem on top right side of the Afghan flag





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(1914-2007) King Zahir khan was born on 15 October 1914 in Kabul, Afghanistan
.After the assassination of his father, Zahir Shah the 19- year old son of Nadir Shah become the long lasting King of Afghanistan for 40 years until he was ousted by a bloodless coup in 1973. Zahir Shah studied especial classes for princes at Habibia high school located in western part of Kabul and then he continued his education in France, where his father had been sent as a diplomatic envoy




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(1883-1933) King Nadir Khan was born in Dehra Dun in India on April 10, 1883 into Mohammadzay clan.
Nadir Khan was the king of Afghanistan After Amir Amanullah Khan from October 15, 1929 until his assassination in 1933. Nadir Khan was a military general in Amanullah Khan's monarchy. When the Anglo-Afghan war started in 1919, Nadir Khan volunteered to lead the national army to the south and to fight the enemy. After the kingdom of Amanullah Khan and during the 9 months leadership of Kalakani, Nadir fought for months until he had captured most part of the country from the leadership of Habibullah Kalakani's with the support of British Empire. Then he had killed Kalakani and himself became the Shah or king of Afghanistan.

On November 1933 while he was distributing awards to the high school graduates at Bala-e-sar Kabul, the King was shot dead by a teenager named Abdul Khaliq Hazara. Mohammad Nader Shah was criticized by many Afghan historians as an agent of Britain in Afghanistan. During his regime hundred of thousands of innocent civillians were killed in Afghanistan. During his Afghan kingdom, Afghanistan flag remained the same except has changed the emblem.






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Amir Habibullah Khan from 1901-1919 was the king and ruler of Afghanistan.
King Habibullah Khan, was born on June 3, 1872 and he was the eldest son of Amir Abdul Rahman Khan and the child of a slave mother and the father of King Amanullah Khan. Habibullah Khan ruled Afghanistan from 1901, until his assassination in 1919 while he was on hunting trip to Laghman provice Afghanistan. The King kept Afghanistan out of World War I. During his reign, Habibullah khan has modernized the country during his kingdom and built various roads and schools including the first modern school of Habibia which was built in 1904 in west part of Kabul Afghanistan and the military academy

The flag of Afghanistan during his kingdom from 1901 until 1919, had a black background with an emblem in white color in the center. The black background flag represented the black page of the history and the independence Afghanistan had not been achieved on that time





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Amanullah Khan was crowned the Amir of Afghanistan after his father, Amir Habibullah was assassinated in February 1919. Amanullah Khan was fiercely anti-British and wanted to destroy an old agreement which gave the British control over Afghanistan's foreign policy. The British resisted this move, and so began the Third Anglo-Afghan War (1919). After a brief struggle, the British were forced to negotiate and in the end surrendered their control over Afghanistan's foreign policy

Afterwards, Amanullah became a national hero, and was given the tile Ghazi. He then turned his attention to modernizing Afghanistan. He changed his title from Amir to Padshah (King) in 1926. King Amanullah's modernization plans were not greeted so warmly by everyone in Afghanistan, and as result, many tribes revolted. In the end, the revolt caused Amanullah Khan the throne. He left Afghanistan and lived in exile in Italy and Switzerland. He died in 1960, and was buried in Jalalabad, near his father's tomb





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1390/01/12 :: نویسنده : Faheem Samadi
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